Welcome!

Adobe Flex Authors: Glenn Rossman, Matthew Lobas, PR.com Newswire, Shelly Palmer, Kevin Benedict

Related Topics: Adobe Flex

Adobe Flex: Article

Best Practices in Kiosk Design

Best Practices in Kiosk Design

Kiosk systems provide a unique set of development conditions and challenges. Whereas most multimedia development produces a software application, a kiosk is a collection of physical, hardware, software, and support systems. This article attempts to look at the entire kiosk project, in hopes that you will have control over most of it.

Design the Process
You already know to do your information architecture (IA), user interface (UI), and usability design for software before the visual layout and software development. You may even have the time, budget, and foresight to do usability testing focused on your target user base with wire frames on paper or with quick software mockups before starting on graphics and code. But for a kiosk, the product is more than an executable file; it is the entire system and process. Besides creating a simple and intuitive UI, you want to simplify the installation, deployment, and support of your kiosk.

Run the entire process through an IA/UI/usability design phase. Create end-to-end use cases; remember to include service and support personnel as users as well as the end user. Consider every aspect you are responsible for or interact with. Don't forget:

  • Computer hardware
  • Peripherals
  • Cabinetry
  • The operating system (OS) and third-party software
  • Networking
  • Installers
  • Documentation and training manuals
  • Online portions
  • Administration and configuration components
  • UL-type consumer safety testing and certification
  • Contracts with third-party vendors
  • Support systems
If no one considers a component, such as the base system OS, as a part of the end product, no one will be assigned responsibility for it and have time budgeted for it. Parts of your process that fall through the cracks will fall to whoever has the free time or gets stuck with it at the last minute, not the best person for the job.

Your initial sketches, charts, and use cases don't have to be incredibly detailed. It is better to realize that these "work products" are just as important to plan, document, and have in source control as the code. Continue to add to them and assign responsibility for the sections as the project grows.

We Control the Hardware
Choose Your Platform
Look at the entire scope of the project to determine which platform(s) you are going to focus on and develop on. It may be helpful to develop for full cross-platform compatibility even if the in-kiosk machine specification is for only one. A cross platform-compliant program can quickly turn into a demo CD-ROM or be viewed by that one client who uses "the other platform." You also want to try to keep your options as open as possible to limit your risk to hardware going out of production. There are several limiting factors on your hardware selection: certain required hardware components, components without drivers or features for a particular OS, sponsorship arrangements with hardware providers, and required software components such as an ActiveX controller for a digital camera.

Use industrial hardware components whenever possible for parts that the end user interacts with. Or, use cheap consumer devices with plenty of spares and a quick replacement process. Most consumer keyboards, mice, trackballs, and joysticks weren't made to withstand children playing on them and drinks being spilled on them daily. I have seen consumer components with impressive technical specs used - and replaced after a year's worth of sub-par performance.

With keyboards there are several options:

  • On-screen with a touch-screen monitor: This works best for a small amount of data. It may be more prone to vandalism and require more frequent cleaning, and have a major impact upon the UI/usability and visual design.
  • Custom industrial keyboard: This is a more expensive option and probably requires a third-party vendor, may require a Quality Control/Quality Assurance cycle of its own, and allows you to define exactly which keys are available to the user.
  • Standard keyboard (industrial or consumer): This keyboard already exists, is less expensive and more thoroughly tested than a custom one, and will require some work with the OS to lock out certain keys and key combinations to protect your system.
Choose your industrial hardware supplier and/or physical kiosk fabricator carefully, though. My last kiosk project had a running joke about the vendor's "Don't worry about it, we'll handle it" attitude and inability to complete even simple tasks. They shipped us a "new replacement trackball" that had been removed from service three months prior. The stainless steel kiosk cabinetry arrived on location in a distant city without a hole for power cables to exit. Custom industrial keyboards had their letters rubbed off by use within six months.

Just as you may separate generic code and graphics from specific, it can be helpful to keep user-generated data separate from the OS and application. When the OS hard drive becomes physically damaged, you won't lose any of the previous data. You may even separate the OS from the application.

And We Control the Software
The basic kiosk is just an application program (the Show) running in a box. It probably has an "attract loop" that runs between user sessions, and a time-out mechanism that detects when someone has walked off and returns the application to the attract loop.

The Show (and other kiosk applications) should create at least a couple of levels of logs. A user-interaction log will record the path the user takes through the application in order to data mine for information about how the kiosk is used. Each component may also have its own process or debug log to record the progress through the code, the beginning and finishing of functions and methods, relevant variables and states in the case of trapped errors, interactions between components on the kiosk, as well as attempts to talk to other machines and network processes. These debug logs are indispensable in solving problems if the kiosk does lock up, crash, or error, or even in knowing whether the problem is the code module, the data, the network, or a change to another component having side effects. All log files should be written locally in case off-kiosk communication isn't working and may also be remotely accessed or uploaded to a central location. The data may also be transmitted to a server as it is generated so you can track exactly where a user is, or as part of some multi-user system.

Logging data can be very important for understanding the long-term usage of your kiosks. It also may be important to have archived for historical data: I have parsed through debug logs to discover that the 1.3 release was actually more stable than the 1.2 release - despite the client's convictions to the contrary. Version 1.3 was receiving refocused attention due to the upgrade, showing the weakness of relying on anecdotal evidence of kiosk performance.

The Show and kiosk components have a variety of ways to transmit data depending upon your situation: it can be sent immediately via a direct connection, sent as tasks are completed (at the end of a user session), or queued up in batches to be sent only late at night.

Use audio sparingly and wisely. Audio should work with the entire kiosk, not be something someone just throws in at the end. If you do have audio, consider what can be done to make it more tolerable to any people who work around your kiosk installation. There can be quite a lot of intentional damage to your kiosk installation if it aggravates the people who have to work around it. Even during development, it may not be long before someone who sits near the QA machine asks someone to turn off the sound. (A cheap pair of headphones left plugged into each machine may help ensure office tranquility and allow people to hear the audio when they need to.) Attract loop audio can be especially annoying. Adding randomness and variability to the attract loop audio can greatly increase the experience for people exposed to the kiosk for long periods of time.

Herd animals use deep bass "lowing" sounds because these can travel over greater distances and are hard for predators to pinpoint the location of. Unless you are creating a kiosk about cows, dinosaurs, or the science of sound waves, you should avoid bass, especially when you have a group of kiosks together. This also means you can save money by not buying a subwoofer for the kiosk sound system.

One way to reduce the risk of the effect of downtime due to computer errors is a software or hardware "watchdog" component that reboots the machine if the show quits giving it a signal on a regular interval. A hardware version is more reliable than a software solution because the machine may lock up beyond the ability of the software to restart the system. The watchdog doesn't solve any problems with the kiosk crashing, and any user interacting with the kiosk when it crashes will still have a bad experience; however, if the kiosk is automatically back up and running shortly, it may still give many users a good experience. A kiosk that has crashed or locked up (possibly with sensitive user information left on screen) and sits for hours or days can give a lot of potential users a bad experience.

The kiosk may also require access to configuration settings, utility functions, and the standard OS. It may be helpful to be able to view logs, turn "restricted keys" on the keyboard back on, or to re-enable the cursor on a touch-screen kiosk for development and testing with a mouse. These configuration components and utilities may also be useful as parts of the Console.

The basic idea of the Console is to be able to control any kiosk from anywhere. Technically proficient on-site support is expensive; design and develop as if you will never be able to have a live human configure or support it again. If programmed well, a configuration application may work on kiosk, on a local console machine, and as a remote console, possibly through a Web interface. By making these features usable anywhere, you can change settings or fix problems from around the world or right in front of a suspect kiosk with a wireless device, with the same interface.

The console should be able to make configuration changes to the kiosks, either to a specific kiosk, or broadcast changes to groups of them. It may be useful to be able to control a kiosk by sending it a message that simulates a button push, allowing you to remotely "drive" the kiosk through a workflow.

So, How Are the Kiosks Doing?
One of the most useful features for your remote console is a "heartbeat monitor." (see Image I). The Show can send a "heartbeat" at a regular interval to a remote server, and the heartbeat monitor allows you to view that information. The heartbeat contains a minimal amount of information: kiosk ID, time and date (if the kiosk is scheduled, otherwise skip it and just use the server's time), and maybe what state the kiosk is in. Some useful states are "StartUp" when the machine reboots, "Error" if an error has been trapped and the kiosk is in an error state, "OK" when the kiosk is running fine, or any other modes or states the kiosk has, such as a "Night" or "Closed" mode, or periods of inactivity. The heartbeat monitor then allows to you see what is going on with your kiosks. The minimal heartbeat monitor may just display a green light next to a kiosk name that is okay, a red light next to one that isn't. Without this, you don't have an answer to the question, "How are the kiosks doing?" You can also display more information such as state, timestamps for last error, last restart, last OK ping, etc. With this information, you may end up alerting support staff to things such as the network being down or kiosks needing rebooting, or that maybe something else is wrong because, for example, no has used Kiosk 12 all day.

The heartbeat monitor can also come in handy when you're running QA tests. Your team can monitor the 10 machines across the hall in the QA lab all day instead of walking back and forth only a couple of times a day.

The holy grail of modern kiosk development is remote updating. If you never have to physically intervene with a kiosk in order to change the underlying software, you can greatly decrease the cost of bug fixes, content changes, upgrades, and updates. The console should be able to schedule remote updates and view versioning information for all the kiosks.

The console application may also be able to create and display other kiosk information, including data-mining information. Any information that can be used to chart user interactions, display usage statistics, orders, purchases, media usage, kiosk uptime or downtime, revenue, etc. Image II shows the console application main screen; Image III shows the console "settings" screen.

The Operating System and Supporting Applications
The creation process of the base OS and the installation of any drivers or supporting application programs is just as important to the success of your kiosk as the kiosk show application. Any third-party software required for your kiosk to run should be handled here. This process should be well documented, controlled, and versioned. Small things like the order of installing drivers may be important. Don't upgrade any component without realizing the inherent risk that change can pose. Make changes one at a time with testing, just as you would test major software changes. The more open-ended you can build this process, the better. Work to have a single OS recovery package that will adapt and work for variant hardware.

Quality Assurance, Too
Develop on Your Target Platform and Environment
The more restricted the target hardware/OS/supporting application environment is the more important this is. I know...I've got a snazzy laptop and I don't like the "other" platform either. But it takes only a couple of seconds to test a feature or make a screenshot to illustrate a problem on the target platform. And if I can't control that camera with my preferred system or I can't interface with the database because we don't have a network, the development process will take much longer.

Visual designers should also inspect their artwork on the target hardware displays. Graphics look a lot different in a dark cubicle on a perfectly tweaked 21" flat-screen monitor than they may on an out-of-the-box touch-screen monitor in a brightly lit room. LCD monitors may have problems displaying high-contrast images. Find out that the black, white, and red interface looks like with badly compressed JPG graphics on the kiosk's LCD screen before the client has signed off on the design and all the hardware has been purchased.

Test on Your Target Platform
Independent of your development system, you should have a target platform with controlled and documented hardware, OS, and supporting applications.

Test for the Long Term
Most multimedia application programs are run for only a relatively short amount of time in one session and can be recovered by the user if necessary. But tiny memory leaks can add up over 12 or 72 hours, and may be caused by your application, faulty supporting applications, or even a specific combination of motherboard, audio card, video card, and drivers.

Have at least a basic test constantly running on the target platform. I've been known to utilize "RECORDER.EXE" from Windows 3.1 to record primitive user interactions and then loop them for a week. There are much more sophisticated testing programs available. Target a full week of uptime, but build in a daily reboot if your product allows.

You'll also want to have a real QA process. Because you have a narrow target platform, QA can spend their time on the software functionality, rather than testing for compatibility issues. QA should evaluate and verify the entire process, not just the program, whenever possible, from building the OS, adding supporting applications, installing the application, configuring and deploying, and hardware component replacement.

Support
While you may not be actively involved in supporting the kiosk over the full life of its deployment, there are many things that you can do to aid the support of the system.

Keep a backup of the base OS and of the OS plus the kiosk application at hand at any deployment. This can be used to wipe a troublesome machine clean or to format a replacement machine.

Ralph Waldo Emerson said, "A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds," but a reasonable consistency is necessary for kiosks. Imagine trying to fix an upside-down kiosk monitor in a remote location and discovering that two of the screws in the bracket holding the monitor require a star screwdriver bit. Work for consistency. Watch for computer hardware consistency - chipsets change in production runs and you never realize the variability in what appears to be the same video card until something doesn't work. Demand consistency from any third-party providers.

Take pictures of the hardware when it is set up correctly, as an illustration. Take pictures of the finished and deployed kiosks for reference later (see Image IV). It may take a long time to figure out remotely that the problem with the kiosk is related to which USB port the digital camera is plugged into.

Keep an adequate supply of replacement hardware on hand at the deployment site. Hardware seems to fail in pairs, but it may be that hardware failures are only noticed and reported by local staff after multiple units have failed. If you have a bug reporting console component that can be used on-kiosk or on a console machine, you will receive more accurate and helpful data than someone trying to decipher a handwritten log a week later. Remember that local personnel are already fully employed; don't count on adding any task to someone's job, even if it will "just take a minute." The security guard doesn't want the added task of shutting down all your machines every night any more than you do. Make sure any contracts and agreements define who is responsible for and who pays for upkeep, cleaning, checking on the physical system (blown monitors) and theft/vandalism. How hard or easy it is to support your kiosk systems is going to depend upon how well you are able to document, control changes, and simplify systems during development.

Conclusion
Kiosk systems can be rewarding to develop, allowing for far greater control over the system and the ability to push the limits of multimedia development. A kiosk is so much more than the interface the user interacts with, and thus requires more planning and development than typical multimedia software.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
Software AG helps organizations transform into Digital Enterprises, so they can differentiate from competitors and better engage customers, partners and employees. Using the Software AG Suite, companies can close the gap between business and IT to create digital systems of differentiation that drive front-line agility. We offer four on-ramps to the Digital Enterprise: alignment through collaborative process analysis; transformation through portfolio management; agility through process automation and integration; and visibility through intelligent business operations and big data.
There will be 50 billion Internet connected devices by 2020. Today, every manufacturer has a propriety protocol and an app. How do we securely integrate these "things" into our lives and businesses in a way that we can easily control and manage? Even better, how do we integrate these "things" so that they control and manage each other so our lives become more convenient or our businesses become more profitable and/or safe? We have heard that the best interface is no interface. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Chris Matthieu, Co-Founder & CTO at Octoblu, Inc., will discuss how these devices generate enough data to learn our behaviors and simplify/improve our lives. What if we could connect everything to everything? I'm not only talking about connecting things to things but also systems, cloud services, and people. Add in a little machine learning and artificial intelligence and now we have something interesting...
Last week, while in San Francisco, I used the Uber app and service four times. All four experiences were great, although one of the drivers stopped for 30 seconds and then left as I was walking up to the car. He must have realized I was a blogger. None the less, the next car was just a minute away and I suffered no pain. In this article, my colleague, Ved Sen, Global Head, Advisory Services Social, Mobile and Sensors at Cognizant shares his experiences and insights.
We are reaching the end of the beginning with WebRTC and real systems using this technology have begun to appear. One challenge that faces every WebRTC deployment (in some form or another) is identity management. For example, if you have an existing service – possibly built on a variety of different PaaS/SaaS offerings – and you want to add real-time communications you are faced with a challenge relating to user management, authentication, authorization, and validation. Service providers will want to use their existing identities, but these will have credentials already that are (hopefully) irreversibly encoded. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Peter Dunkley, Technical Director at Acision, will look at how this identity problem can be solved and discuss ways to use existing web identities for real-time communication.
Can call centers hang up the phones for good? Intuitive Solutions did. WebRTC enabled this contact center provider to eliminate antiquated telephony and desktop phone infrastructure with a pure web-based solution, allowing them to expand beyond brick-and-mortar confines to a home-based agent model. It also ensured scalability and better service for customers, including MUY! Companies, one of the country's largest franchise restaurant companies with 232 Pizza Hut locations. This is one example of WebRTC adoption today, but the potential is limitless when powered by IoT. Attendees will learn real-world benefits of WebRTC and explore future possibilities, as WebRTC and IoT intersect to improve customer service.
From telemedicine to smart cars, digital homes and industrial monitoring, the explosive growth of IoT has created exciting new business opportunities for real time calls and messaging. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Ivelin Ivanov, CEO and Co-Founder of Telestax, will share some of the new revenue sources that IoT created for Restcomm – the open source telephony platform from Telestax. Ivelin Ivanov is a technology entrepreneur who founded Mobicents, an Open Source VoIP Platform, to help create, deploy, and manage applications integrating voice, video and data. He is the co-founder of TeleStax, an Open Source Cloud Communications company that helps the shift from legacy IN/SS7 telco networks to IP-based cloud comms. An early investor in multiple start-ups, he still finds time to code for his companies and contribute to open source projects.
The Internet of Things (IoT) promises to create new business models as significant as those that were inspired by the Internet and the smartphone 20 and 10 years ago. What business, social and practical implications will this phenomenon bring? That's the subject of "Monetizing the Internet of Things: Perspectives from the Front Lines," an e-book released today and available free of charge from Aria Systems, the leading innovator in recurring revenue management.
The Internet of Things will put IT to its ultimate test by creating infinite new opportunities to digitize products and services, generate and analyze new data to improve customer satisfaction, and discover new ways to gain a competitive advantage across nearly every industry. In order to help corporate business units to capitalize on the rapidly evolving IoT opportunities, IT must stand up to a new set of challenges.
There’s Big Data, then there’s really Big Data from the Internet of Things. IoT is evolving to include many data possibilities like new types of event, log and network data. The volumes are enormous, generating tens of billions of logs per day, which raise data challenges. Early IoT deployments are relying heavily on both the cloud and managed service providers to navigate these challenges. In her session at 6th Big Data Expo®, Hannah Smalltree, Director at Treasure Data, to discuss how IoT, Big Data and deployments are processing massive data volumes from wearables, utilities and other machines.
All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices – computers, smartphones, tablets, and sensors – connected to the Internet by 2020. This number will continue to grow at a rapid pace for the next several decades. With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo in Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be!
P2P RTC will impact the landscape of communications, shifting from traditional telephony style communications models to OTT (Over-The-Top) cloud assisted & PaaS (Platform as a Service) communication services. The P2P shift will impact many areas of our lives, from mobile communication, human interactive web services, RTC and telephony infrastructure, user federation, security and privacy implications, business costs, and scalability. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Erik Lagerway, Co-founder of Hookflash, will walk through the shifting landscape of traditional telephone and voice services to the modern P2P RTC era of OTT cloud assisted services.
While great strides have been made relative to the video aspects of remote collaboration, audio technology has basically stagnated. Typically all audio is mixed to a single monaural stream and emanates from a single point, such as a speakerphone or a speaker associated with a video monitor. This leads to confusion and lack of understanding among participants especially regarding who is actually speaking. Spatial teleconferencing introduces the concept of acoustic spatial separation between conference participants in three dimensional space. This has been shown to significantly improve comprehension and conference efficiency.
The Internet of Things is tied together with a thin strand that is known as time. Coincidentally, at the core of nearly all data analytics is a timestamp. When working with time series data there are a few core principles that everyone should consider, especially across datasets where time is the common boundary. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Jim Scott, Director of Enterprise Strategy & Architecture at MapR Technologies, will discuss single-value, geo-spatial, and log time series data. By focusing on enterprise applications and the data center, he will use OpenTSDB as an example to explain some of these concepts including when to use different storage models.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Gridstore™, the leader in software-defined storage (SDS) purpose-built for Windows Servers and Hyper-V, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 15th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Gridstore™ is the leader in software-defined storage purpose built for virtualization that is designed to accelerate applications in virtualized environments. Using its patented Server-Side Virtual Controller™ Technology (SVCT) to eliminate the I/O blender effect and accelerate applications Gridstore delivers vmOptimized™ Storage that self-optimizes to each application or VM across both virtual and physical environments. Leveraging a grid architecture, Gridstore delivers the first end-to-end storage QoS to ensure the most important App or VM performance is never compromised. The storage grid, that uses Gridstore’s performance optimized nodes or capacity optimized nodes, starts with as few a...
The Transparent Cloud-computing Consortium (abbreviation: T-Cloud Consortium) will conduct research activities into changes in the computing model as a result of collaboration between "device" and "cloud" and the creation of new value and markets through organic data processing High speed and high quality networks, and dramatic improvements in computer processing capabilities, have greatly changed the nature of applications and made the storing and processing of data on the network commonplace. These technological reforms have not only changed computers and smartphones, but are also changing the data processing model for all information devices. In particular, in the area known as M2M (Machine-To-Machine), there are great expectations that information with a new type of value can be produced using a variety of devices and sensors saving/sharing data via the network and through large-scale cloud-type data processing. This consortium believes that attaching a huge number of devic...
Innodisk is a service-driven provider of industrial embedded flash and DRAM storage products and technologies, with a focus on the enterprise, industrial, aerospace, and defense industries. Innodisk is dedicated to serving their customers and business partners. Quality is vitally important when it comes to industrial embedded flash and DRAM storage products. That’s why Innodisk manufactures all of their products in their own purpose-built memory production facility. In fact, they designed and built their production center to maximize manufacturing efficiency and guarantee the highest quality of our products.
All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices - computers, smartphones, tablets, and sensors - connected to the Internet by 2020. This number will continue to grow at a rapid pace for the next several decades. Over the summer Gartner released its much anticipated annual Hype Cycle report and the big news is that Internet of Things has now replaced Big Data as the most hyped technology. Indeed, we're hearing more and more about this fascinating new technological paradigm. Every other IT news item seems to be about IoT and its implications on the future of digital business.
Can call centers hang up the phones for good? Intuitive Solutions did. WebRTC enabled this contact center provider to eliminate antiquated telephony and desktop phone infrastructure with a pure web-based solution, allowing them to expand beyond brick-and-mortar confines to a home-based agent model. Download Slide Deck: ▸ Here
BSQUARE is a global leader of embedded software solutions. We enable smart connected systems at the device level and beyond that millions use every day and provide actionable data solutions for the growing Internet of Things (IoT) market. We empower our world-class customers with our products, services and solutions to achieve innovation and success. For more information, visit www.bsquare.com.
With the iCloud scandal seemingly in its past, Apple announced new iPhones, updates to iPad and MacBook as well as news on OSX Yosemite. Although consumers will have to wait to get their hands on some of that new stuff, what they can get is the latest release of iOS 8 that Apple made available for most in-market iPhones and iPads. Originally announced at WWDC (Apple’s annual developers conference) in June, iOS 8 seems to spearhead Apple’s newfound focus upon greater integration of their products into everyday tasks, cross-platform mobility and self-monitoring. Before you update your device, here is a look at some of the new features and things you may want to consider from a mobile security perspective.